Monday, June 20, 2011

Indra as Vritrahan "slayer of Vritra"

According to the Rig Veda, Vritra kept the waters of the world captive until he was killed by Indra, who destroyed all the ninety-nine fortresses of Vritra (although the fortresses are sometimes attributed to Sambara) before liberating the imprisoned rivers.

The combat began soon after Indra was born, and he had drunk a large volume of Soma at Tvashtri's house to empower him before facing Vritra. Tvashtri fashioned the thunderbolt (Vajrayudha) for Indra, and Vishnu, when asked to do so by Indra, made space for the battle by taking the three great strides for which he became famous.Vritra broke Indra's two jaws during the battle, but was then thrown down by the latter and, in falling, crushed the fortresses that had already been shattered. For this feat, Indra became known as Vritrahan "slayer of Vritra" and also as "slayer of the first-born of dragons". Vritra's mother, Danu (who was also the mother of the Danava race of Asuras), was then attacked and defeated by Indra with his thunderbolt. In one of the versions of the story, three Devas - Varuna, Soma and Agni - were coaxed by Indra into aiding him in the fight against Vritra whereas before they had been on the side of the demon (whom they called "Father")

In another version Vritra was created by Tvashtri to avenge the killing of his son by Indra, known as Trisiras or Visvarupa. Vritra won the battle and swallowed Indra, but the other gods forced him to vomit Indra out. The battle continued and Indra was eventually forced to flee. Vishnu and the rishis brokered a truce, with Indra swearing that he would not attack Vritra with anything made of metal, wood or stone, nor anything that was dry or wet, or during the day or the night. Indra used the foam (which Vishnu had entered to ensure victory) from the waves of the ocean to kill him at twilight.

Vritra (a brahmin in this version) became the head of the Asuras (portrayed as inherently demonic here, as opposed to the Vedic version in which they can be gods or demons). He renounced his dharma – duty – to do good unto others and turned to violence, battling with the devas. Eventually, he gained the upper hand and the Devas were frightened of his evil might. Led by Indra, they approached Lord Vishnu for help. He told them that Vritra could not be destroyed by ordinary means, revealing that only a weapon made from the bones of a sage could slay him. When the deities revealed their doubts about the likelihood of any ascetic donating his body, Vishnu directed them to approach the sage (Rishi) Dadichi. When approached by the gods, Dadhichi gladly gave up his bones for the cause of the good, stating that it would be better for his bones to help them attain victory than to rot in the ground. The Devas collected the bones and Indra crafted the Vajrayudha from them. When they engaged Vritra again, the battle lasted for 360 days before the brahmin breathed his last.

In both of these versions (either for killing Trisiras or the brahmin Vritra), the terrible anthropomorphic personification of Brāhmanahatya (Brahmanicide) chased Indra and forced him into hiding for his sin,[9][10] and Nahusha was invited to take his place

Friday, June 17, 2011

Extraction from Vishnu Puranam

Śrí, the bride of Vishńu, the mother of the world, is eternal, imperishable; in like manner as he is all-pervading, so also is she, oh best of Brahmans, omnipresent.

Vishńu is meaning; she is speech.
Hari is polity (Naya); she is prudence (Níti).
Vishńu is understanding; she is intellect.
He is righteousness; she is devotion.
He is the creator; she is creation.
Śrí is the earth; Hari the support of it.
The deity is content; the eternal Lakshmí is resignation.
He is desire; Śrí is wish.
He is sacrifice; she is sacrificial donation (Dakshiná).
The goddess is the invocation which attends the oblation; Janárddana is the oblation.
Lakshmí is the chamber where the females are present (at a religious ceremony); Madhusúdana the apartment of the males of the family.
Lakshmí is the altar; Hari the stake (to which the victim is bound).
Śrí is the fuel; Hari the holy grass (Kuśa).
He is the personified Sáma veda; the goddess, lotus-throned, is the tone of its chanting.
Lakshmí is the prayer of oblation (Swáhá); Vásudeva, the lord of the world, is the sacrificial fire.
Saurí (Vishńu) is Śankara (Śiva); and Śrí is the bride of Śiva (Gaurí).
Keśava, oh Maitreya, is the sun; and his radiance is the lotus-seated goddess.
Vishńu is the tribe of progenitors (Pitrigana); Padma. is their bride (Swadhá), the eternal bestower of nutriment.
Śrí is the heavens; Vishńu, who is one with all things, is wide extended space.
The lord of Śrí is the moon; she is his unfading light.
She is called the moving principle of the world; he, the wind which bloweth every where.
Govinda is the ocean; Lakshmí its shore.
Lakshmí is the consort of Indra (Indrání); Madhusúdana is Devendra.
The holder of the discus (Vishńu) is Yama (the regent of Tartarus); the lotus-throned goddess is his dusky spouse (Dhúmorná).
Śrí is wealth; Śridhara (Vishńu) is himself the god of riches (Kuvera).
Lakshmí, illustrious Brahman, is Gaurí; and Keśava, is the deity of ocean (Varuna).
Śrí is the host of heaven (Devasená); the deity of war, her lord, is Hari.
The wielder of the mace is resistance; the power to oppose is Śrí.
Lakshmí is the Kásht́há and the Kalá; Hari the Nimesha and the Muhúrtta.
Lakshmí is the light; and Hari, who is all, and lord of all, the lamp.
She, the mother of the world, is the creeping vine; and Vishńu the tree round which she clings.
She is the night; the god who is armed with the mace and discus is the day.
He, the bestower of blessings, is the bridegroom; the lotus-throned goddess is the bride.
The god is one with all male--the goddess one with all female, rivers.
The lotus-eyed deity is the standard; the goddess seated on a lotus the banner.
Lakshmí is cupidity; Náráyańa, the master of the world, is covetousness.
Oh thou who knowest what righteousness is, Govinda is love; and Lakshmí, his gentle spouse, is pleasure.

But why thus diffusely enumerate their presence: it is enough to say, in a word, that of gods, animals, and men, Hari is all that is called male; Lakshmí is all that is termed female: there is nothing else than they.